Some days ago, I was talking to my friends and one of them asked me if I can write a program to measure the distance of the object to the camera, so I told myself why not write a post about it on my blog. I got the idea of writing this code from Adrian’s blog. You can find the code of distance of object to the camera at the end of this post
In order to determine the distance from our camera to a known object or marker, I am going to utilize triangle similarity.
The triangle similarity goes something like this: Let’s say I have a marker or object with a known width W. Then I place this marker some distance D from my camera. I take a picture of my object using our camera and then measure the apparent width in pixels P. This allows me to derive the perceived focal length F of my camera:
F = (P x D) / W
For example, I place a 21 x 29cm piece of paper (vertically; W = 21) D = 20 cm in front of my camera and take a photo. When I measure the width of the piece of paper in the image, I notice that the perceived width of the paper is P = 133 pixels.
My focal length F is then:
F = (1338px x 20cm) / 21cm = 126.35
As I continue to move my camera both closer and farther away from the object/marker, I can apply the triangle similarity to determine the distance of the object to the camera:
D’= (W x F) / P
I wrote the program to detect the circle in the paper and measure the distance of circle to the camera.
import numpy as np import cv2 def find_marker(image): # convert the image to grayscale and blur to detect edges gray = cv2.cvtColor(image, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY) gray = cv2.GaussianBlur(gray, (5, 5), 0) edged = cv2.Canny(gray, 35, 125) # find the contours in the edged image (cnts, _) = cv2.findContours(edged.copy(), cv2.RETR_LIST, cv2.CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE) c = max(cnts, key = cv2.contourArea) return cv2.minAreaRect(c) def distance_to_camera(knownWidth, focalLength, perWidth): # compute and return the distance from the image to the camera return (knownWidth * focalLength) / perWidth # initialize the known distance from the camera to the object KNOWN_DISTANCE = 20.0 # initialize the known object width, which in this case, the piece of # paper is 21 cm wide KNOWN_WIDTH = 21.0 # initialize the list of images that we'll be using #(the first image is the one we know the distance from camera.) IMAGE_PATHS = ["D1e.jpg", "D-1e.jpg", "D2e.jpg"] # load the image that contains an object that is KNOWN TO BE from our camera image = cv2.imread(IMAGE_PATHS) marker = find_marker(image) print marker focalLength = (marker * KNOWN_DISTANCE) / KNOWN_WIDTH print focalLength # loop over the images for imagePath in IMAGE_PATHS: # compute the distance to the paper from the camera image = cv2.imread(imagePath) gray = cv2.cvtColor(image, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY) marker = find_marker(image) CM = distance_to_camera(KNOWN_WIDTH, focalLength, marker) # draw a circle around the image and display it which is also circle circles = cv2.HoughCircles(gray, cv2.cv.CV_HOUGH_GRADIENT, 1.2, 100) # ensure at least some circles were found if circles is not None: #convert the (x, y) coordinates and radius of the circles to integers circles = np.round(circles[0, :]).astype("int") # loop over the (x, y) coordinates and radius of the circles for (x, y, r) in circles: cv2.circle(image, (x, y), r, (0, 0, 0), 5) cv2.putText(image, "%.2fcm" % CM , (image.shape - 350, image.shape - 15), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 2.0, (255,0,0), 3) cv2.imshow("image", image) cv2.waitKey(0) cv2.destroyAllWindows()